A Guide to Consolidating and Refinancing Student Loans

Student loan consolidation and refinancing can help you manage your debts, reducing monthly payments, creating more favorable terms, and ensuring you have more money in your pocket at the end of the month. 

But how do these payoff strategies work, what are the differences between private loans and federal loans, and how much money can consolidation save you?

Private and Federal Student Loan Consolidation

Federal student loan consolidation can combine multiple federal loans into one. Private consolidation can combine both federal loans and private loans into a new private loan. The act of consolidation can improve your debt-to-income ratio, which can help when applying for a mortgage and greatly improve your financial situation.

Which Loans Qualify for Student Loan Consolidation?

You can generally consolidate all student loans, including Federal Perkins loans, Direct loans, and other federal loans, as well as those from private lenders. You cannot consolidate private loans with federal loans, but you can consolidate them with other private loans.

What Should you Think About Before Consolidating Student Loans?

Consolidating isn’t just something to consider if you’re struggling to meet current terms. In fact, private lenders often require a minimum credit score in the high-600s and you’ll also need to have a stable income (or a cosigner) and a history of at least a few punctual payments.

Federal student loans are a little easier to consolidate and available to more borrowers, including those looking to qualify for income-based repayment or student loan forgiveness schemes.

In either case, it can reduce your monthly payments, making your loans more manageable.

How to Consolidate Private Student Loans

Some of the private lenders offering this service include:

  • LendKey
  • Citizens One
  • CommonBond
  • SoFi
  • Earnest

The rate you receive will depend on your credit score and whether you opt for a variable interest rate or a fixed interest rate, but generally, they range from 3% to 8%. Each lender has their own set of terms and requirements, but they’ll often require you to:

  • Be at least 18 years old
  • Have no more than $150,000 in debt
  • Be the main borrower (not the cosigner)
  • Complete a credit check

The lender will run some basic checks to determine your creditworthiness before offering you a consolidation sum that will clear your debts and leave you with a single monthly payment. There are different types of private loan depending on whether you’re applying to consolidate just private loans or both federal loans and private loans.

If you only have federal loans, you should apply for federal student loan consolidation instead.

What Will I Pay?

The main goal of student loan consolidation is to reduce your monthly payment. If you have a strong credit score you can get a reduced interest rate and may even benefit from a reduced repayment term. However, as with most forms of consolidation, it’s all about reducing that monthly payment, improving your debt to income ratio and increasing the money you have leftover every month.

Shop around, consider all loan terms carefully, run some calculations to make sure you can meet the monthly payment, and compare repayment options to find something suitable for you.

Don’t feel like you need to jump at the first offer you receive. A personal loan application can show on your credit report and reduce your credit score by as much as 5 points, but multiple applications with multiple private lenders will be classed as “rate shopping”, providing they all occur within 14 days (some credit scoring systems allow for 30 or 45 days).

How Federal Debt Consolidation Loan Works

Federal student loan consolidation won’t reduce your interest rate, but it does make your repayments easier by rolling multiple payments into one and there is no minimum credit score requirement either.

When you consolidate federal student loans, the government basically clears your existing debt and then replaces it with a Direct Consolidation Loan.

You can consolidate directly through the government, with the loan being handled by the Department of Education. There are companies out there that claim to provide federal student loan consolidation on behalf of the government, but some of these are scams and the others are unnecessary—you can do it all yourself.

You can apply for consolidation once you graduate or leave school and you will be given an extended loan term between 10 and 30 years.

Just visit the StudentLoans.gov website to go through this process and find a repayment plan that suits you.

What is Student Loan Refinancing?

Student loan refinancing is very similar to consolidation and the two are often used interchangeably. In both cases, you apply for a new loan and this is used to pay off the old one(s), but refinancing is only offered by private lenders and can be used to “refinance” a single loan.

The process is the same for both and in most cases, you’ll see “consolidation” being used for federal loans and “refinancing” for private loans.

Student Loan Forgiveness and Other Options

You may qualify to have your federal student loans fully or partially forgiven. This is true whether you have previously been accepted or refused for repayment plans and it can help to lift this significant burden off your shoulders.

  • Public Service Loan Forgiveness (PSLF): Offered to government workers and employees with qualifying non-profit companies. You can have your federal loans forgiven after making 120-payments. This program works best with income-focused repayment plans, otherwise, you may have very little left to forgive (if anything) after that period.
  • Teacher Loan Forgiveness: Teachers can have their federal student loans partially forgiven if they have been employed in low-income schools for at least five years. They can have up to $17,500 forgiven.
  • Student Loan Forgiveness for Nurses: Nurses can qualify for PSLF and this is often the best option for getting federal student loans forgiven or reduced. However, there are a couple of highly competitive options, including the NURSE Corps Loan Repayment Program.

There are also Income-Driven Repayment Plans, which is definitely an option worth considering.

Income-Driven Repayment Plans

An income-focused repayment plan is tied to your earnings, taking between 10% and 20% of your earnings, before being forgiven completely after 20 or 25 years. There are four plans:

  • Pay as you Earn (PAYE): If you have graduate loans and are married with two incomes then you may qualify.
  • Revised Pay as you Earn (REPAYE): Offered to individuals who are single, don’t have graduate loans, and have the potential to become high earners.
  • Income-Based Repayment: If you have federal student loans but don’t qualify for PAYE.
  • Income-Contingent Repayment: If you have Parent Plus loans and are seeking a reduced monthly payment.

These programs can greatly reduce your monthly payment and your obligations, but they are not without their disadvantages. For instance, they will seek to extend the repayment term to over 20 years, which will greatly increase the total interest you pay. If anything is forgiven, you may also pay taxes on the forgiven amount.

You can discuss the right option for you with your loan servicer, looking at the payment term in addition to your current circumstances and projected income as well as your student loan terms.

Conclusion: Help and More Information

Student loan refinancing and consolidation can help whether you’re struggling with federal loans or private loans, and there are multiple options available, as discussed in this guide. If you have credit card debt, personal loan debt, and other obligations weighing you down, you may also benefit from a debt management plan, balance transfer credit card, or a debt settlement program.

You can find information on all these programs on this site, as well as everything else you could ever want to know about federal student loans and private loans.

A Guide to Consolidating and Refinancing Student Loans is a post from Pocket Your Dollars.

Source: pocketyourdollars.com

How Much Does a Cosigner Help with Getting Auto Loans or Better Loan Terms?

A woman in a bright yellow dress drives a silver car.

Imagine you’re shopping for a new car and finally find a reasonably priced set of wheels that you like. But when the dealer pulls your credit, that seemingly affordable monthly payment is no longer available to you. Instead, you’re offered a subprime car loan at 10% or even 20% interest because your credit isn’t strong enough to get a better rate.

How much does a cosigner help on auto loans when you’re facing this type of situation? Get more information below to help you decide whether seeking a cosigner is the right option for you.

How Does a Cosigner on a Loan Work?

A cosigner is basically someone who backs the loan. They sign agreeing that if you don’t make the payments as promised, they will step in to pay them.

If you don’t have much of a credit history or your credit is bad or poor, lenders are typically hesitant to give you an auto loan. They perceive you as risky. Will you pay as agreed? There’s not enough data or credit history for them to make that call.

However, a cosigner with a long history of good credit is different. The lender is more likely to believe that this person willpay as agreed. So, if you can get a cosigner to back you, you might have a better chance of getting a loan or getting better terms.

How Much Does a Cosigner Help With an Auto Loan?

How much can you save? Imagine you finance $37,851, the average price for a new light vehicle in the United States as of February 2020.

The average interest rate as of the end of 2019 for new car loans was 5.76%. If you’re able to get that interest rate and a loan term of 72 months—that’s 6 years—you would pay a total of $44,742. That’s $6,891 in interest and a monthly payment of around $621.

If you financed at 10% without a cosigner for the same terms, you’d pay a total of $50,488 for the vehicle. That’s $12,637 in interest and around $701 in monthly payments.

This is obviously just an example, but you can see that a cosigner can save you a lot. In this case, it’s $80 a month and more than $5,700 total.

Cosigner Versus Co-Applicant

It’s important to note that having a cosigner for a car loan is not the same thing as having a co-applicant. A co-applicant buys the vehicle with you. Their credit history and income are used alongside yours to determine if you, together, can afford the vehicle. The co-applicant also has an equal share of ownership in the vehicle purchased with the loan.

A cosigner, on the other hand, doesn’t have an ownership share in the vehicle. Their income may also not be a factor in the approval. Typically, they’re along only to provide a boost in the overall credit outlook.

What Are Some Downsides of Having a Cosigner?

Most of the risks or disadvantages are held by the cosigner. If you don’t pay the loan, they could become responsible for it. They could also suffer from a lower credit score if you’re late with car payments because it might get reported to their credit too.

As a borrower, you might experience a few disadvantages in using a cosigner. First, you have to get someone to agree to this, and you typically want it to be someone with good credit. Trusted family members are the most common cosigners, but that could mean that they might want to have a say in what type of vehicle you get.

And if something happens and you can’t pay the vehicle loan for any reason, you run a personal risk. You could damage your relationship with the cosigner if they do end up having to pay off the loan or face damage to their credit.

So, Should You Get a Cosigner for an Auto Loan?

The decision is personal. Before you do anything, check your credit and understand where you are financially. That helps you know what your chances for getting approved for a loan are on your own and how much loan you might be able to afford.

Then, check out some potential auto loans and consider whether you should apply for them on your own. If you know your credit is too poor or you try to apply for a loan and don’t get favorable terms, talk to a potential cosigner. Be honest about your situation and have a plan to pay the loan on time each month so they feel more confident supporting you as you make this purchase.

Apply for an auto loan today!

The post How Much Does a Cosigner Help with Getting Auto Loans or Better Loan Terms? appeared first on Credit.com.

Source: credit.com

How to Decide If Pet Insurance Is Worth the Cost

Woman deciding if pet insurance is worth the cost

Last fall, our greyhound Tivo refused his breakfast on a Friday morning. He didn’t eat or drink water all day, and we were worried. That night, we took him to the 24-hour emergency veterinarian and Tivo was diagnosed with a bacterial stomach bug and dehydration. We went home with antibiotics, a saline IV, and a $200 vet bill.

Thankfully, we could afford this bill for unexpected emergency care for Tivo. But if he were diagnosed with a chronic condition or needed a very costly intervention, we might find ourselves facing some heartbreaking financial decisions.

Pet insurance is often touted as a solution to these worries. With pet insurance covering some costs of veterinary care, you’re never forced to choose between your beloved pet and your finances. However, does this kind of coverage make sense for most pet-owners?

Here’s what you need to know about pet insurance so you can keep your fur babies bright-eyed and bushy-tailed for years to come.

Premium costs

As with human health insurance, pet insurance charges you a monthly premium for your pet’s coverage. According to Value Penguin, the average monthly cost for canine pet insurance is $47.20, and the average for feline insurance is $29.54 for accident and illness coverage.

Of course, this doesn’t tell the whole story of what to expect from premium costs. Many pet insurers increase premiums with the age of your pet. Which means the $47 per month you pay to keep your 4-year-old pup healthy could rise with his/her age, making the premiums harder to keep up with just as they’re more likely to need age-related medical intervention. In addition, different breeds can have different premium prices, since there are some hereditary conditions that various breeds may be more prone to.

However, even with these potential issues, there are some methods to keep premiums manageable. For instance, some tried and true insurance reduction strategies work just as well for your pet’s health insurance as they do for your own. These include increasing your deductible, reducing the percentage that the insurance reimburses, or limiting the annual payout rather than choosing unlimited coverage.

These strategies can keep your premiums affordable while still helping with big veterinary bills. But you need to be prepared to pay anything above and beyond the coverage limits you set up. (See also: 8 Ways to Lower Your Vet Bills) 

Coverage

It’s also important to note that pet insurance does not necessarily cover every kind of health cost for your pets. To start, unlike (some) human health insurance, most pet insurance will not cover preventive care and annual exams. So you will need to plan for these costs on top of your premiums.

Pet insurance policies generally come in two varieties: accident and illness policies, and accident-only policies. In general, accident-only policies do not raise their premiums as your pet ages, making this kind of insurance more affordable long-term. However, accident-only policies tend to be cheaper because your pet is less likely to get injured than fall ill. If you decide to invest in pet insurance, getting both accident and illness protection will likely offer you more protection.

That said, each insurer gets to decide which illnesses, conditions, and services it covers, and not all ailments are covered. Many insurers also do not cover the diagnostic exam for a particular illness, even if the treatments are covered. Make sure you pay attention to the details of what your potential insurer will cover before signing up for coverage.

As with many types of human health insurance, most pet insurance policies exclude preexisting conditions. Unfortunately, some insurers consider health problems to be "preexisting" if they crop up within a year of the purchase of your policy. Insuring your pet when they’re young is the best way to avert the preexisting condition coverage gap.

Finally, pet insurance coverage is usually handled via reimbursement. That means you’ll be on the hook to pay the vet bill at the time of service, and you’ll submit your receipts to your insurer to receive reimbursement. (See also: 7 Things You Need to Know About Pet Insurance)

Should you buy pet insurance?

With all the caveats, coverage gaps, and reimbursement requirements, pet insurance is not necessarily a slam dunk for everyone. In fact, many consumer advocates recommend that pet owners put aside an amount equal to the annual premium into a savings account each year. This will give you the same peace of mind that you can cover any potential health care needs for your pet while also allowing you to keep the money if you never need to use it.

However, if you struggle with financial discipline, this strategy will leave you in a difficult situation if your furry friend needs an expensive procedure. Pet insurance can provide you with the protection your pet needs even if you struggle with money. 

Show your love with an emergency fund

Whether or not you decide to purchase pet insurance, remember that you’ll have to pay upfront for any veterinary procedures. With insurance, you will get reimbursed for covered care, but you will still need to have access to funds to pay for Mittens’ kidney stone removal or Rex’s arthritis care at the time of care.

This means that one of the best ways you can protect your furry friends and avoid heartbreaking financial choices is to have an emergency fund. With or without pet insurance, set some money aside for the unexpected so you can enjoy your four-legged family members for years to come. (See also: 7 Easy Ways to Build an Emergency Fund From $0)

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With pet insurance covering some costs of veterinary care, you're never forced to choose between your beloved pet and your finances. Here's what you need to know about pet insurance. | #pets #petcare #insurance


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Planning a Home Office? Check Out These Budget-Friendly Tips

Working from home has its perks. There’s the money saved from skipping the commute, and just think about all of that time you get back by avoiding crowded freeways or public transit during rush hour. As far as workplace attire goes, few employees would trade “work-from-home casual” for dress slacks.

But while working from home affords some new freedoms, it also creates new challenges. One of your biggest tasks is to create a productive, ergonomically correct workplace in your home without breaking the bank. If this sounds familiar, you’re probably asking yourself, “How can I set up a home office on a budget?”

Whether you’ve always worked from home as a freelancer or started during the pandemic, these expert tips will help you get started as you design your home office on a budget:

From finding the right location to choosing the ideal furniture, these tips will help you create your home office on a budget.

Strive for an ergonomically correct home office

Being home all day creates an unexpected obstacle: pain. Many workers find that transitioning from a well-equipped office to a makeshift setup at home leads to discomfort. That’s because many of them go from having a spacious desk, comfortable chair, and monitor and keyboard in their office building to working from a laptop in their living room.

If you suffer from neck pain or eye strain when working from home, you may be feeling the effects of poor ergonomics. Ergonomics, commonly known as the science of work, aims to optimize productivity and health in a workspace.

As a physical therapist with more than 25 years of experience, Karen Loesing, owner of The Ergonomic Expert, knows this issue all too well. Loesing’s company performs ergonomic assessments for businesses and home offices. Over the years, she has seen countless clients suffering from neck, back or other health issues due to poorly designed workspaces. But it doesn’t have to be that way, Loesing says.

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“Having an ergonomically correct workstation enhances productivity and generally overall happiness at work.”

– Karen Loesing, owner of The Ergonomic Expert

There are relatively easy ways to transform an ergonomic nightmare into a well-functioning home office on a budget—even if you’re stationed at the kitchen table, she says. And the investment is worth it.

“Having an ergonomically correct workstation enhances productivity and generally overall happiness at work,” Loesing says. “For those who are able to designate a certain space in their home where they can work without distractions—maybe even a window with a view and the flexibility to work at your own pace—it has been proven this makes for a happier employee.”

Who doesn’t want to boost their health, productivity and happiness in one fell swoop?

Find the optimal location for your at-home workspace

When setting up a home office for remote work, location should be your first decision, says design consultant Linda Varone, author of “The Smarter Home Office.” Depending on your living situation, there may be an obvious answer, such as that spare room you’ve always thought could become an office space.

If you don’t have a dedicated office, don’t despair. While you design your home office on a budget, think creatively about where it can be.

Varone once visited a client’s home to help reconfigure her workspace. The client was running a business from a table in the hallway. “At the end of each workday, she had to pack everything up and store it in the closet in the guest room,” Varone says.

But as Varone learned, guests only stayed over two weeks a year, leaving the room empty the rest of the time. It hadn’t occurred to the business owner, but turning the guest room into a home office for most of the year was the perfect solution.

If you’re setting up a home office for remote work, picking the optimal location for your workspace should be your first step.

“There are some simple, simple ways that people can rethink their home office without a big investment and make that space really work for them,” Varone says.

In addition to using a guest room, a dining or living room can also function as a home office on a budget.

Establish the ideal setup for your workstation

Once you’ve decided on the room, determine the location for your workstation, Varone says. As you plan your home office, consider placing your desk or table near a window, allowing for natural light and an occasional glimpse of nature. Don’t face directly outside; instead, aim for a line of sight that’s perpendicular to the window, Varone says. That’s because, even on an overcast day, you’d be looking into too much bright light if you’re facing the window.

“What’s happening is your eyes are adjusting back and forth between the bright sunlight that you’re facing and the darker light of your computer screen,” Varone says. “And that ends up being really fatiguing for the eye.”

If you live with others, the biggest challenge will be privacy. Try to clearly define the boundaries of your “office” if you can, such as with an area rug, she says. Then ask your roommates or family members not to enter your space while you’re working, apart from an emergency.

When you're planning a home office, try to clearly define the boundaries of your workspace if you live with others.

If you use a multipurpose space, be sure to tidy everything up at the end of the day, Varone says. Taking the 10 minutes or so to clean up your “office” will reduce clutter. Ultimately, a clutter-free space can reduce your stress and boost your productivity.

“That also has a benefit of becoming a little ritual and helping you say, ‘All right, my workday is over,’” Varone says. “‘Now I can focus on my personal life.’”

Choose your furniture wisely

Now that you’ve found the perfect location for your home office on a budget, focus on finding the perfect work surface. Maybe it’s a traditional desk. Or it could be your dining room table or kitchen counter.

If you do need to buy a desk or chair, don’t feel like you need to spend a fortune. Try looking for a used office furniture store or liquidator in your area, Varone recommends. You could even try searching online marketplaces for a gently used model.

When planning a home office and considering your work surface, what matters most is the height.

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The average desk is 29 inches high, Loesing says. This will likely accommodate someone who’s 5’8”, she acknowledges, but for everyone else? It will take some adjusting to make it fit for them.

That’s where your chair comes in. Most people don’t need a high-end office swivel chair to work comfortably. As long as you can adjust the height of your chair to fit you and your desk, you’ll have a comfortable setup.

It’s important to adjust the height of your chair to achieve a neutral position, Loesing says. If you don’t have the instructions from the manufacturer on how to adjust your model, try searching for videos online, she adds.

One more chair takeaway from Loesing?

“If you can’t spend a dime, at least get as comfortable as you can where you’re sitting, and sit all the way back in your chair,” Loesing says. “When you don’t sit so your back is against the backrest, you’re using your back muscles all day long instead of them being at rest.”

When you design your home office on a budget, make sure your chair and work surface allow you to get into a comfortable sitting position.

Adjust your furniture and equipment

As you continue planning a home office, you’ll likely find that your computer is your most important piece of equipment. But it can also lead to neck strain. Whether it’s a laptop or an external monitor, Loesing says screen placement is key. In fact, she says it’s the single most important feature to address—as well as the most commonly disregarded one.

While you plan your home office, Loesing recommends keeping the following ergonomic guidelines in mind to help avoid neck strain:

  • Align your monitor so your eyes are level with the screen. (That’s typically about 4” from the top of the monitor.)
  • Place your feet flat on the floor and your knees at about a 90-degree angle with the ground.
  • Place your arms at about a 90-degree angle from the writing surface so your shoulders are relaxed.

If you only have a laptop, and no monitor, you still have options for raising your screen to eye-level. “There are budget-friendly laptop risers on the market,” Loesing says. “If you don’t want to spend any money, you can place books or reams of paper to bring the screen up to eye level.”

When setting up a home office for remote work and thinking about your arm placement, note that Varone is a strong advocate for an external keyboard. If you’re working at a desk that has a keyboard tray built into it, that’s a great way to keep your arms at about a 90-degree angle, she says. If you don’t have a built-in tray, she says you can improvise by placing your keyboard on an inexpensive laptop table situated directly under your desk.

While the exact adjustments will vary depending on your equipment, height and budget, the focus is on acquiring a neutral position or a position where there’s no strain on anything, Loesing says.

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“With the addition of standing desks, which encourage movement, employees often find they have significantly more energy at the end of the day.”

– Karen Loesing, owner of The Ergonomic Expert

Stand if it suits you

If you’re intrigued by the idea of a standing desk, you’re not alone. Standing desk sales have soared over the last decade, buoyed by reports of the dangers of too much sitting.

“Static postures (e.g., sitting all day in front of a computer) present more fatigue than dynamic working,” Loesing says. “With the addition of standing desks, which encourage movement, employees often find they have significantly more energy at the end of the day.”

You don’t have to buy an official standing desk to reap the benefits when planning a home office. “The least expensive way would be to take a laptop and place it up high on a built-in high counter using a compact wireless keyboard and mouse,” Loesing says.

Even if you don’t have a standing desk—makeshift or otherwise—you can still incorporate movement and circulation into your workday. Set a timer to remind you to stand up and stretch every 20 minutes, Loesing suggests.

For an even better boost, combine this with a popular guideline known as the 20-20-20 rule. Every 20 minutes, give your eyes a break by looking out a window at something at least 20 feet away, and do so for at least 20 seconds.

Don’t forget the ambience and accessories

Your desk, chair and computer are the major players when you’re setting up a home office for remote work. But there are a few additional items to consider, like lighting, plants and sound.

Setting up a home office for remote work should include some thinking around ambiance, like lighting, plants and sound.

Your overhead light fixture likely isn’t enough, as it will create shadows and can be too weak by the time it reaches your workspace, Varone says. She recommends investing in a table lamp that creates a wider spread of light in your area. Pick one with a translucent shade that will softly diffuse the light and make it easier on your eyes.

As you’re planning your home office, Varone also recommends incorporating a potted plant or flower into your workspace. Not only can it help purify the air and boost your mood, a natural element can contribute to a restful atmosphere.

Working from home means working with home noises—especially if you’re in an environment with roommates, a partner or little ones. To keep the noise down, consider noise-canceling headphones for a quieter workspace and clearer meetings. Other budget-friendly options? Try placing a towel under the door to block out noise from other rooms, Loesing says. Consider curtains instead of blinds, since they’re better at blocking out sound. Even pillows or large cushions can help reduce noise, she adds.

After you’ve taken care of the essentials and if you have the space and money, think about adding a reading chair to your home office. You can use this as a space to review documents or do some deep thinking, Varone says. It can be a welcome respite from your desk while keeping you in the office area, she adds.

When planning a home office, think about adding a reading chair to your space.

One last tip? Add a personal touch, whether it’s a framed family photo or a souvenir from your travels. It’s your home office, after all. Let your personality shine.

Set up a home office for remote work that allows you to thrive

Now that you know how to create a home office on a budget, you’re ready to make a space that works well for you. Whether you’re an experienced remote worker or a newbie, you can apply these expert tips to set up an office that’s functional and keeps you motivated day in and day out.

Ready to break in your new home office? Keep that motivation going by learning how to increase your earning potential this year.

The post Planning a Home Office? Check Out These Budget-Friendly Tips appeared first on Discover Bank – Banking Topics Blog.

Source: discover.com

Turkey, Money, COVID, and More

I’m thankful for you, reading this article. But I’m also thankful for turkey and potatoes and pecan pie. And in the spirit of Thanksgiving dinner, I’d like to serve you with a smorgasbord today. The appetizer comes from the engineering world. The main course brings in investing. And for dessert, I added a quick calculator to consider the risk of COVID at your Thanksgiving dinner.

Low and Slow

I’m a mechanical engineer. In the engineering sub-field of heat transfer, there’s an important quantity called the Biot number. The Biot (bee-yo) number compares the way heat enters a body at its surface against the way that heat travels through the body.

That might not make sense to you. That’s why the Biot number needs to be explained using food!

Why do we cook pizzas at 900ºF for 3 minutes? Great question, especially when compared against cooking turkeys at 350ºF for multiple hours.

Pizza has a small Biot number. It has a large surface area compared to its volume—it’s very thin. Any energy added to the pizza at its surface will quickly propagate to the center of the pie.

But turkey has a large Biot number. It’s roughly spherical, so its ratio of volume to surface area is vastly larger than a pizza’s. It takes time for energy added at the surface of the turkey to propagate to the center of the turkey.

Food pizza cooking GIF on GIFER - by Aragami

And then there’s the matter of mass. This is separate from the Biot number, but equally important. Cooking a 20-pound turkey will take longer than cooking a 1-pound pizza. That’s easily understood. Heavy stuff takes longer to warm up.

Potatoes and Pumpkin Bread

Why do I have to bake pumpkin bread at 325ºF for an hour? Why can’t I bake it for 450ºF for 40 minutes? Or in a pizza oven, at 900ºF for a few minutes?

I don’t recommend it, but it’s an experiment you could conduct yourself. You’d find that you’d overload the exterior of the loaf with heat before giving that heat enough time to propagate to the center of the loaf. The outside burns. The inside remains raw. And everyone’s sad at the lack of pumpkin bread.

Pumpkin bread GIFs - Get the best gif on GIFER

The more cubic or round or dense a food is, the more low-and-slow the cooking or baking will be. This applies to loaves of bread, cakes and pies, or dense cuts of meat. A meat smoker might run at 225ºF all day.

If a food is flat or thin or narrow, it can probably be cooked high and fast. Pizzas, bacon, stir fries all apply. Lots of surface area and lightweight.

But what about mashed potatoes? We only boil potatoes at 212ºF degrees for 15 minutes. That’s way colder and shorter than a turkey or pie. And potatoes are reasonably dense. What gives?

The answer is that water transfers heat more effectively than air. That’s why 60ºF air feels temperate to your skin, but 60ºF degree water is frigid. That’s why you can stick you bare hand in a 400ºF oven (for a few seconds), but sticking your hand in boiling water (212ºF) will scald you. Water moves heat better than air.

Snoop Dogg Adds Mayonnaise To His Mashed Potatoes And I'm Actually OK With It

And moving or flowing fluid transfers heat better than stagnant fluid. This is why cold winter air has a “wind chill” factor—the blowing cold air removes more heat from your skin that stagnant cold air. And those Thanksgiving potatoes are surrounded by boiling and roiling water. They cook quickly.

Invest Like a Turkey

Enough engineering. Let’s bring it back to money.

You can approach investing like baking a pizza. Or you can invest like you would cook a turkey. I recommend the turkey version.

Turkey Cooking GIFs | Tenor

You can (try to) pick stocks that will double overnight. Or you could explore exotic asset classes with promises of “going to the moon.” You can even borrow money—or leverage—to further extend your investments. This is investing like a pizzamaker. It’ll be hot and fast and potentially over in five minutes.

But sadly, historical context provides ample data suggesting that pizza investing is not effective. Hand-picking stocks has more risk than reward. Short-term flips are closer to gambling than to investing.

That’s why you should invest like a turkey. Low and slow and long-term. Check on your progress occasionally. Adjust your timeline if needed. A half-cooked turkey does not resemble your final product, just like a half-funded portfolio can’t support your retirement. But mostly, stay on plan and trust the process. Plan for the long-term and let time take care of the rest.

Use last week’s retirement calculator to plan for the long-term…starting with your savings goal for 2021.

A Plate Full of Stuffing

And speaking of Thanksgiving, ensure that your investing portfolio resembles a Thanksgiving plate: diverse and well-balanced.

Could you imagine eating 1500 calories worth of gravy? Well, maybe. But it would be accompanied by plenty of turkey, stuffing, cranberry sauce and potatoes, too. You can even fit in a slice of something exotic, like pecan pie.

Thanksgiving Dinner GIFs | Tenor

Similarly, a well-balanced investment portfolio reduces your risk from being over-exposed to any single asset type. I described my personal choices in my “How I Invest” article. But there are many ways to skin a turkey, and many ways to diversify a portfolio.

Will Your Turkey Get COVID?

Everyone seems to be all huffy about gathering for Thanksgiving. So-called “experts” are saying the holiday will act as a super-spreading event for COVID. First, Starbucks cancelled Christmas. And now China is cancelling Thanksgiving? What’s up with that?!

Don’t be an ignoramus. For most of the United States, a gathering of 10 or more people has a higher than 50% chance to contain at least person who is positive for COVID. Re-read that sentence.

If you’re going to gather for Thanksgiving, it’s helpful to understand the risk involved. For some, the risk is small and reasonable. For others, the probability of COVID being at your gathering will easily surpass a coin flip.

The following calculator is a simple, first-order estimate. It provides an example of how probabilities work. There’s more explanation after the calculator.

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I’m not an epidemiologist or virologist. Please take this math at face value. If an area has a positive infection rate P, then then odds of a person being negative is 1-P. The odds that all N people at your gathering are negative is (1-P)^N. Therefore, the odds of at least one positive case at your Thanksgiving gathering is 1-(1-P)^N.

I recommend looking up your area’s positive case rate here—COVID ActNow. Now, a large positive test rate is just as indicative of insufficient testing as it is of high infection rates. If you only have enough test supplies to test the sickest people, then you’re likely to have a higher rate of positive infections. More reading here from a guy named Johns Hopkins.

So feel free to play around with the infection rate. The true infection rate of an area is likely lower than what’s reported on COVID ActNow.

Keep Grandma healthy!

Thanks Again

Thanks a ton for reading the Best Interest. I try to stuff this blog full of fun and helpful information, and having wonderful readers is the gravy on top.

I wish you a happy and healthy Thanksgiving. And don’t burn the pumpkin bread!

If you enjoyed this article and want to read more, I’d suggest checking out my Archive or Subscribing to get future articles emailed to your inbox.

This article—just like every other—is supported by readers like you.

Source: bestinterest.blog

7 Ways to Invest in Real Estate Without Buying Property

This page may include affiliate links. Please see the disclosure page for more information. How do many wealthy people get that way? They invest in real estate. It is a proven way to build wealth. 90% of millionaires became so through owning real estate. So said famous industrialist (and billionaire) Andrew Carnegie. Yet only 15% of Americans…

The post 7 Ways to Invest in Real Estate Without Buying Property appeared first on Debt Discipline.


7 Ways to Invest in Real Estate Without Buying Property was first posted on March 11, 2020 at 6:00 am.
©2019 "Debt Discipline". Use of this feed is for personal non-commercial use only. If you are not reading this article in your feed reader, then the site is guilty of copyright infringement. Please contact me at brian@debtdiscipline.com

Source: debtdiscipline.com

Is Investing During Coronavirus a Good Idea?

A man in a suit and tie works on his cellphone and laptop at the same time.

The coronavirus bear market might look appealing to some. But for many, the economic changes that come with COVID-19 cause anxiety and uncertainty. Investing during coronavirus, when you can buy stock or other assets for lower prices, might sound like mathematical sense, but is it right for you?

Go to Guide
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Start with the information below—and the advice of your
financial planner—to make an educated decision for yourself.

A Look at the COVID-19 Stock Market

The stock market took a beating as the coronavirus
began to sweep across the US. On Feb. 20, 2020, the Dow Jones Industrial
Average was 29,219.98 points. By March 23, 2020, it had dropped to
18,591.93 in an extreme slide downward related to the pandemic.

But even as the Dow continued to drop, economic experts were warning people not to panic with their money. Peter Mallouk, a chief investment officer, said he was worried people would make irrecoverable mistakes by using emotion- and fear-based decisions in managing their portfolios.

And in fact, the Dow did start to climb again, reaching as high as 23,949.76 on April 14, 2020. While it’s likely to rise and fall throughout the pandemic, economic experts predict the stock market will eventually rally.

Some Reasons a Rally Is Likely

Nothing falls forever. Eventually, the economy will
begin to rise again. Consumers are eventually going to hit the market with enormous
demand.

According to MarketWatch, the economy in the US is about 70% driven by consumer culture—the buying and selling of goods and services. During the coronavirus quarantine, many people have been stuck in their homes or limited in how they can shop, dine or recreate. Once stay-at-home orders are lifted and people start to get back to a new normal, there’s likely to be a huge spike in spending.

MarketWatch also predicts that changes in supply chains
and money from various economic stimulus efforts will continue to stimulate the
stock market. While no economic future can be 100% predicted, historical trends
support some of these predictions.

Should I Invest During Coronavirus?

But an eventual rise in the stock market isn’t a free pass to go all in. Investment adviser Ric Edelman says knowing how to proceed according to your own situation and needs is important. Regardless of what the economy might be doing right now or in the future, understanding your own financial goals is the place to start.

First, consider how long you have to regain lost wealth or build new wealth. Someone who is on the verge of retirement or already retired may not have the time it takes to wait for bear market investments to increase in value. Older adults might want to stick with low-risk investments or savings accounts that maintain what wealth they already have.

Next, consider your current financial status. “Buy low, sell high” might be the prevailing wisdom among investors, but it only works if you have the money to buy with. Many families are facing loss of income or jobs right now, and it might not be the time for investing. Instead, it might be time to work on your personal budget and negotiate with creditors to reduce expenses, at least temporarily.

Finally, consider how risk adverse you are. No investment is a sure thing, but some
do come with more risk than others. Understanding what you can afford to lose
helps you determine which types of investments might be right for you.

Investing During Coronavirus: Where and How?

Ultimately, only you can decide if investing during
coronavirus is the right move for you. Once you make that decision, though, you
have many options to choose from. Here are just a few possible investments that
might be right for you.

  • Buy stocks that have dropped enough to make them affordable but are for companies that you feel will weather the storm and come out swinging after the pandemic.
  • Invest in companies that have enough cash. Most expert-level investors are still looking for opportunities, but they’re being picky and opting for companies that have strong cash flow and stable balance sheets. Now isn’t the time to make big gambles, especially if you’re not young enough to recover before retirement.
  • Consider investing in real estate, which historically has weathered recessions and global economic crisis better than many other options.

If and how you invest is a very personal decision—and
always a big one. It’s a good idea to seek help from personal financial
advisers or other wealth management professionals even in good times. Consult
professionals for help understanding the best ways to support your
wealth-building goals if you decide to invest during coronavirus.

Other Coronavirus Support

Coronavirus has impacted more than just our investment opportunities. If you’re worried about other money or credit questions at this time, check out our COVID-19 finances guide. From keeping eyes on your credit to what to expect from stimulus packages, Credit.com has information to help you plan and manage your money during this time.

The post Is Investing During Coronavirus a Good Idea? appeared first on Credit.com.

Source: credit.com

8 Career Tips to Help You Crush Your Goals in 2021

Good riddance, 2020. After one of the worst years of our lifetime, the ritual of setting New Year’s resolutions has taken on new meaning — especially when it comes to our financial lives. The pandemic erased the jobs of millions of Americans and docked the incomes of millions more. But now is a time for […]

This was originally published on The Penny Hoarder, which helps millions of readers worldwide earn and save money by sharing unique job opportunities, personal stories, freebies and more. The Inc. 5000 ranked The Penny Hoarder as the fastest-growing private media company in the U.S. in 2017.

Source: thepennyhoarder.com

Chipotle to Hold Nationwide Hiring Event to Fill 15K New Jobs

Chipotle is kicking off the new year with a nationwide hiring blitz.

With hundreds of new restaurants in the works, the fast-casual Mexican food chain plans to fill 15,000 new openings, according to the hiring announcement.

To make headway on those recruitment efforts, all Chipotle locations are holding a “Coast to Coast” career event Jan. 14. On-site interviews are taking place from 8 a.m. to 10 a.m. and 2 p.m. to 5 p.m. local time.

As a safety precaution, outdoor and curbside interview accommodations are available.

“Please bring a mask and follow all safety protocols while you’re in the restaurant,” the company said.

Pro Tip

To participate in the hiring event, you must fill out a brief application and select an available interview time slot at your local Chipotle. Do not show up without requesting an interview.

Compared to the overall restaurant industry, Chipotle has fared well throughout the pandemic. The company hired 10,000 new workers in July as it added new locations and built drive-thru windows at many existing locations. In November, Chipotle unveiled its first ever “digital” restaurant in New York to experiment with only providing drive-thru and pick-up orders.

Job Openings at Chipotle

Chipotle’s recruitment spree is focused on hiring new restaurant team members, which primarily consist of line cooks, food preppers, and cashiers. These positions are entry level.

According to job listings on the company’s career board, the main crew-member requirement is that you must be at least 16 years old to apply. All training is provided.

Chipotle doesn’t have a company-wide minimum wage. On average, crew members earn about $10 to $11 an hour (or local minimum wage if higher) according to thousands of self-reported wages on Glassdoor.

To entice new workers, the burrito chain has been experimenting with new perks and benefits available to all employees, part- and full-time:

  • Medical, dental and vision insurance.
  • 401(k) retirement plan after one year of employment.
  • One free meal per shift.
  • 100% tuition coverage for select degrees and universities through a partnership with Guild Education.
  • Tuition reimbursement of up to $5,250 for schools and degrees outside that partnership.
  • Paid time off including parental leave.
  • English as a second language training.

If Chipotle meets its hiring goals, the company’s workforce is set to exceed 100,000.

Check out these other employers that offer health insurance and cover college costs for part-time employees.

Adam Hardy is a staff writer at The Penny Hoarder. He covers the gig economy, remote work and other unique ways to make money. Read his ​latest articles here, or say hi on Twitter @hardyjournalism.

This was originally published on The Penny Hoarder, which helps millions of readers worldwide earn and save money by sharing unique job opportunities, personal stories, freebies and more. The Inc. 5000 ranked The Penny Hoarder as the fastest-growing private media company in the U.S. in 2017.

Source: thepennyhoarder.com

What Are the Consequences of Not Having Life Insurance?

Before I started writing in the personal finance space, I spent nearly 8 years working alongside my husband in a funeral home. My husband Greg worked as a mortician, and I was the Director of Family Services. I learned so much about living and dying during my years in the mortuary business, but there’s one that stuck with me — the real-life consequences of not having life insurance. 

I clearly remember speaking with dumbfounded families who couldn’t believe their husband or father (or wife or mother) never had life insurance in place. Some didn’t have enough money to cover final expenses like the funeral bill, and others confided in me they had no idea how they would pay their bills.

This saddened me greatly since I know first-hand how inexpensive life insurance can be — especially if you’re young and healthy. After all, I’m a 40-year-old woman and I currently have two term policies worth $1 million dollars that set me back a grand total of $53 per month. 

Why People Don’t Buy Life Insurance

The main reason consumers don’t buy this important coverage is simple — they get busy and forget. Most of us know we need life insurance in place during our working years, and that’s especially true for those of us with kids. But it’s easy to let life get in the way, and for the purchase of life insurance to wind up on a list of other to-dos that we never get to. 

Not only that, but people don’t want to think about dying. I specifically remember a family I met in the funeral home who just lost a husband and father who wasn’t even 40-years-old. In tears, his wife explained that he had told her he was going to buy life insurance dozens of times, but that he hated even dealing with death. He had a $20,000 life insurance policy through work, and he knew he needed more, but he didn’t want to face his mortality in his free time. Unfortunately, his family paid dearly for that decision.

A final reason people don’t buy life insurance is cost. The thing is, term coverage is so cheap that almost anyone can afford it. People just think it’s expensive, so they shy away from taking the next steps. Life insurance is also just another bill to pay, and many can barely keep up with the bills they have.

That’s probably why so few people have enough coverage. Here are some statistics that should scare you:

  • Only around 60 percent of Americans had life insurance in 2018, according to LIMRA’s 2018 Insurance Barometer Study
  • Among those with life insurance, 1 in 5 people know they do not have enough
  • Consumers surveyed tend to overprice life insurance; millennials in particular believe that life insurance costs 5x the actual amount for a policy

Consequences of Not Having Life Insurance

Based on those statistics, not enough people have life insurance and those who do may not have enough coverage to last. But, what can this mean for your family? Here are the main downsides you’ll face when you don’t buy life insurance now, before it’s too late:

Your Income Disappears

Income replacement is one of the most compelling reasons to buy life insurance, and that’s especially true if you have kids. You don’t want your income to suddenly disappear, leaving your family in the lurch. However, this is exactly what happens when you die without life insurance. All of a sudden, your family is left trying to cover regular bills and living expenses without your income.

That’s why many experts suggest buying at least 10x your income in term life insurance coverage. This way, your family will have some cash they can use to replace your income while they mourn and get back on their feet.

Your Debts Don’t 

Your income may disappear when you die, but your debts certainly don’t. With that in mind, you should buy life insurance coverage that will cover major debts you have like your home mortgage, your family car loans, and any credit card debt you have.

If you don’t buy life insurance and you die before your time, your family will be left trying to cover all your debts without your help. It’s shameful to leave them in this position — especially when term life insurance coverage can easily be purchased for the price of a dinner out per month. 

Your Family Could Need a GoFundMe to Pay for Your Funeral

During my final years in the funeral industry, GoFundMe came about. I cannot tell you how many families came in to plan their services without any money only to find that, no, the funeral home wouldn’t let them make payments. After that, they’d set up a GoFundMe and solicit donations from family and friends to pay for a service. 

This always made me sad, mostly because families shouldn’t have to struggle or fundraise to pay for final expenses. I always thought that, if only their loved one had a small term life insurance policy, they would have been able to grieve without the added stress.

You Will Not Leave a Legacy

Finally, life insurance offers you the chance to leave a legacy behind. This could mean leaving enough money to pay for college tuition for your children, or having a broad enough policy so your spouse or partner never needs to work again, paving the way for them to stay home and nurture your kids. When you have enough life insurance so your family is taken care of, they will never forget it.

The opposite is also true. Many whose loved ones die without life insurance wind up angry and resentful at their partner for leaving them in such a position. I know because I saw it with my own eyes, and I felt their exasperation as they tried to figure out what to do.

Purchase Life Insurance the Painless Way

Here’s the thing: Buying life insurance doesn’t have to be complicated or stressful. I know because I have purchased $1 million in life insurance coverage, and because the second policy I bought online didn’t even require a medical exam. 

The purchase of life insurance can be painless and fast if you plan to buy basic term coverage, and it can also be significantly cheaper than you think it would be. These tips can help you get the coverage you need without any added hassle or stress.

1. Shop Around and Compare Quotes Online

First, you should absolutely shop around and compare life insurance quotes online, mostly because this is such an easy task. A range of online life insurance providers including Haven Life and Bestow make it easy to price out a policy in a matter of minutes online. 

To get a quote from Bestow or Haven Life, for example, all you need to supply is your birth date, your height, your weight, and your zip code. You don’t even need to enter your contact information or your email to get a free quote with either company.

You can also check out our guide to the Best Life Insurance Companies of 2021, which lets you read reviews of all the top providers and compare rates from multiple providers in one place. 

Whatever you do, don’t go with the first life insurance company you come across. Make sure you compare policies in terms of their monthly cost, the amount of coverage, and how long it lasts. Then, and only then, can you know you’re getting the best deal.

2. Play Around with Coverage Amounts

You also need to have a general idea of how much coverage you want and need. We mentioned that most experts suggest buying at least 10x your income in life insurance coverage, but it may be prudent to buy more term coverage than you need. After all, there’s no such thing as having too much life insurance in place, but you can definitely not have enough.

You’ll also want to decide how long you want your policy to last. Most term life insurance policies last for 10, 15, 20, or 30 years, letting you tailor your policy to your needs.

If you’re young and you have young kids, you may want a 30-year policy that will provide income replacement for your entire working life. If you’re in your 40’s and you plan to retire at 55, on the other hand, you may feel comfortable with a policy that lasts for 15 or 20 years. There is no “right” or “wrong” answer, but these are factors you should consider.

3. Look for Providers that Don’t Require a Medical Exam

According to LIMRA’s 2018 Insurance Barometer Study, half of all consumers say they are “more likely to purchase life insurance if priced without a physical examination.” And, can you blame them? Medical exams require a blood draw, and you have to set aside time in your schedule for them to boot. It’s easy to procrastinate and never buy a policy when a medical exam is required.

Fortunately, many life insurance providers don’t require a medical exam. Instead, they rely on algorithms to determine who is the greatest risk, and who can purchase coverage that begins right away. The second policy I purchased for myself came from Haven Life, and it did not require a medical exam. 

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I was in my late 30’s when I purchased this policy for $750,000, and I only pay around $27 per month. I applied for this policy online and had coverage the next day, and all without seeing a nurse or facing the dreaded needle prick.

The Bottom Line

Since you took the time to read this piece, you are probably on the verge of buying life insurance. You already know you need it, so don’t let another day go buy without coverage. You may not think something could happen to you in the next week or the next few months, but life doesn’t always go as planned. If you’re unlucky, your untimely death may be no exception.

Take the time to get a quote for life insurance, and you’ll never have to wonder what your family would do if you died. Life insurance lets you continue providing for them even after you’ve left this Earth, and there’s nothing more thoughtful and loving than that. 

The post What Are the Consequences of Not Having Life Insurance? appeared first on Good Financial Cents®.

Source: goodfinancialcents.com